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At the end of the film Shakespeare in Lovea heartbroken Shakespeare bids farewell to his lover and immortalises her in a new play that he begins to write as the film credits roll.


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Viola Klein — was a sociologist in Great Britain. Her work demonstrated that objective ideas about women's attributes are socially constructed. Although her early training was in psychology and philosophy, her most prolific research engagements concerned women's social roles and how these changed after the Industrial Revolution. She was one of the first scholars to bring quantitative evidence to bear on this socio-economic topic.

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Two opposed Characters in one Person 3.

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Same sex love in Twelfth Night 4. Her gender role in the society and her relation to the other characters, especially the relation to Orsino and Olivia is questioned. Therefore I will start with a definition of gender according to Judith Butler's Theory.

Important aspects like her concept of Gender Performativity as well as the aspect of a heteronormative society will be in the main focus. Her assumptions and theses of her work Gender Trouble will be taken in. After this theoretical view of gender is given, the following aspect will be concerned with the protagonist Viola and her disguised self, Cesario. The connection of female and male markers will play a big role within the interpretation of Viola.

Furthermore her appearance and her gender performance with respect to Judith Butler's Theory shall be discussed. After this detailed look on Viola's characteristics is provided, I will turn to the main part of this paper, the relation between the characters of the play Twelfth Night. The implied imagine of same sex love shall be in the main focus.

In the face of this imagine, the male friendship between Sebastian and Antonio, as well as the confusing relation between the characters involved in the love triangle, Viola, Orsino and Olivia, will be considered. The next point which is concerned with the effect of Viola's disguise and how the society is influenced by her disguise will lead to the solution and clarification of the confusion of the love triangle, legal marriage between two opposite sexes.

This discussion will be based on Stephen Greenblatt's theses stated in Fiction and Friction. So I will ask myself the question how Viola's disguise is connected to her gender identity according to Judith Butler's theory and how her performance affects the characters and the society in Twelfth Night.

Finally I will conclude the most interesting and aspects, in respect to the effects of Viola's disguise in a summary. Judith Butler was born in in Cleveland, Ohio and raised by intellectual parents with a jewish background. Therefore she started early to deal with critical and influential literature which affected her academic career.

She studied at diverse universities like Yale University, University of California and even spend a year in Germany to study German Idealism. Her book Gender Troublewhere she discusses her Gender Theory and especially the distinction between sex, gender and desire is counted as one of her most influential ones.

24 s, grade: 3,0

In the following her Gender Theory, but first and foremost the importance of performance in terms of gender, as well as the incorporation in a heterosexual society shall be discussed. With her Gender Theory Judith Butler challenges the existing gender theories by other feminist writers and argues against a binary system including male and female as well as masculine and feminine.

When the constructed status of gender is theorized as radically independent of sex, gender itself becomes a free-floating artifice. All bodies are gendered from the beginning of their social existence[ To sum up, Butler considers several aspects, like the individual performance and the expectations of the society towards this performance, to explain her Gender Theory. The aspect of performance shall be discussed in the following. Butler argues that this performance and her.

To reformulate this, norms which we get taught and which are lived in our surrounding, influence our actions, mostly unwittingly.

In other words Butler emphasizes the fact that the performance of gender depends on its surrounding and the exterior influences. This means in conclusion that we rather live norms that influence us unacknowledged than acting out a desired gender. In her work Bodies That Matter, Butler discusses the connection of performativity and constraint.

Performativity is neither free play nor theatrical self-representation; nor can it be simply equated with performance. Moreover, constraint is not necessarily that which sets limit to performativity; constraint is, rather, that which impels and sustains performativity. Performance never completely forecloses the difference between a norm and its citation in action. When it comes to interpreting the characteristics of Viola in Twelfth Night and the aspect of her disguise, as well as her gender performance, Judith Butler theory will be taken into again.

In general Heteronormativity describes the belief of an existing complementary system of gender and coherently natural gender roles with predefined sexual orientation within a norm. The term Heteronormativity already implies that it is concerned with heterosexual relations between two opposite sexes and is therefore viewed as a social classification system which relies on the assumption that gender follows a normative heterosexual desire.

Everything that deviates from this norm is considered as abnormal behaviour. Masculinity is taken on by the male homosexual who, presumably, seeks to hide — not from other, but from himself — an ostensible femininity.

As a result of this notion and the norm that acts on homosexual woman and men, woman tend to hide their masculine identification by taking on a feminine mask to conform to the heterosexual matrix, and in the reverse, men embracing their masculine mask to hide their femininity.

This aspect can easily be refereed back to performance and the norm that unwittingly influences us. For the following interpretation it is important to keep in mind that a heteronormative society or as Butler puts it, heterosexual matrix, mediates particular norms, which affect the gender performance and therefore the appearance of gender in this society.

This aspect of a heteronormative society will again come up in connection with the interpretation of the same-sex love and the analysis of the legal marriage in the play Twelfth Night or What you will by William Shakespeare. His confusion is triggered by the fact that Viola incorporates two opposed characters, on the one hand the characteristics of a loving women which are mainly recognized by the reader due to the knowledge of her disguise and on the other hand the characteristics of a young gentlemen.

The connection of these characteristics as well as female and male markers which are represented by Viola, shall be discussed in the following. After the shipwreck Viola believes her brother to be dead and therefore decides to dress up as a man to convince, Orsino, the duke of Illyria, to employ her.

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Her disguise as a man first and foremost is characterised by the change of her appearance which is rather male than female. This becomes clear in the first act at the beginning of scene four, where the instructions tell the reader that Viola appears in man's cloth. To keep her imagine as a man upright, Viola even entitles herself as a gentleman in front of Olivia. Violas appearance as a man attracts Olivia that much that Viola believes her to be in love with male disguised identity.

And even though Olivia believes Viola's disguise, other characters like Malvolio do not quite know how to describe Cesario.

Term paper (advanced seminar),

Renaissance Drama. Volume Shakespearean negotiations: the circulation of social energy In Renaissance England. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited. On Judith Butler and Performativity. Judith Butler. London: Routledge.

Performativity, Precarity and Sexual Politics. University of California, Berkley.

E P Emilie Platt Author. Add to cart. Inhalt 1. Introduction 2. Conclusion Bibliography 1. Definition of Gender according to Judith Butler's Gender Theory Judith Butler was born in in Cleveland, Ohio and raised by intellectual parents with a jewish background.

Butler argues that this performance and her theory of gender performativity presupposes that norms are acting on us before we have a chance to act at all, and that when we do act, we recapitulate the norms that act upon us, perhaps in new or unexpected ways, but still in relation to norms that precede us and exceed us.

In her work Bodies That Matter, Butler discusses the connection of performativity and constraint Performativity is neither free play nor theatrical self-representation; nor can it be simply equated with performance.

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